Born: 69 BCE in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Africa
Died: August 30 BCE in Alexandria, Roman Egypt, Africa
Resting Place: Unknown
Legacy: The last ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt
25 Cleopatra Facts for Kids
Cleopatra was the last ancient Egyptian ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
Cleopatra is most well-known for her influence in Roman politics during a pivotal period in Roman and her relationships with both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.
Cleopatra was born in the early part of 69 BCE in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Kingdom. The exact date of her birth isn’t recorded in any surviving records.
Cleopatra’s official birthname was Cleopatra VII.
Cleopatra was the daughter of Ptolemaic pharaoh Ptolemy XII. The identity of her mother is unknown. Some historians believe Cleopatra V, Ptolemy XII sister, could have been Cleopatra’s mother.
Cleopatra was married three times throughout her lifetime. Her first husband was Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator. Her second husband was Ptolemy XIV. Her third husband was Mark Antony.
Cleopatra’s first two marriages were to her younger brothers.
Cleopatra had four children, one with Julius Caesar and three with Mark Antony.
The child by Cleopatra and Julius Caesar was Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar).
The three children by Cleopatra and Mark Antony were Cleopatra Selene II, Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus (Ptolemy XVI Philadelphus Antonius).
Cleopatra died at the age of 39 in August 30 BCE, in Alexandria, Roman Egypt. The exact date of her death isn’t recorded in any surviving records.
Cleopatra took her own life after she was captured by Octavian. Roman historians claimed she killed herself with a toxic onement. A common belief is she died from the bite of an Egyptian cobra or asp bite. The way Cleopatra committed suicide is heavily debated by historians.
In 58 BCE, Cleopatra’s father Ptolemy XII was expelled from Egypt by courtiers in Alexandria.
In 51 BCE, Cleopatra’s father Ptolemy XII dies. At the age of 18, Cleopatra marries her 10 year old brother Ptolemy XIII and they became co-rulers of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
In 49 BCE, Cleopatra army loses a fight against her brother Ptolemy XIII and withdraws from Alexandria.
In 48 BCE, Julius Caesar wins the civil war with Pompey. Pompey flees to Egypt but is assassinated by Ptolemy XIII. This action enrages Julius Caesar and demands both Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII disband their armies.
In 47 BCE, Cleopatra and Julius Caesar use their armies to defeat Ptolemy XIII. While trying to escape the final battle, Ptolemy XIII drowns in a capsized ship.
In 47 BCE, Julius Caesar installs Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIV as joint rulers of Egypt.
In 46 BCE, Cleopatra gives birth to Caesarion. A child believed to be fathered by Julius Caesar.
In 44 BCE, about a month after Julius Caesar’s assassination, Ptolemy XIV dies of poisoning. While never proven, many believed Cleopatra poisoned her younger brother to have absolute control over Egypt.
In 42 BCE, Cleopatra meets Mark Antony convinces him not to attack the Parthian Empire and to have her younger sister Arsinoe executed in Rome.
In 40 BCE, Mark Antony marries Octavian’s sister to form a strong alliance between the two. Octavian is the only major threat to Anthony’s command of Roman.
In 37 BCE, Mark Antony marries Cleopatra and sparks a war with Octavian.
In 31 BCE, the apex of the fight been Mark Antony and Octavian is a naval battle, which is easily won by Octavian.
In 30 BCE, Cleopatra commits suicide. Octavian gave her the choice to choose how she died.